$1 MILLION (Prize amount to be confirmed. Announcement expected for next year)
Quantum computing is the use of quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform computation. Computers that perform quantum computations are known as quantum computers.
Quantum computers are believed to be able to solve certain computational problems, such as integer factorization (which underlies RSA encryption), substantially faster than classical computers. The study of quantum computing is a subfield of quantum information science.
Progress towards building a physical quantum computer focuses on technologies such as transmons, ion traps and topological quantum computers, which aim to create high-quality qubits.
These qubits may be designed differently, depending on the full quantum computer’s computing model, whether quantum logic gates, quantum annealing, or adiabatic quantum computation. There are currently a number of significant obstacles in the way of constructing useful quantum computers. In particular, it is difficult to maintain the quantum states of qubits as they suffer from quantum decoherence and state fidelity. Quantum computers therefore require error correction.